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There is much to say about how drones operate. We will show demonstrations on the parts of each drone as well as the controls that a drone has.
The flight computer can individually control the speed of each motor. The propellers can create an even lifting power in the four points of the model, making it lead towards a specific direction.
The onboard computer will increase RPM when the drifting speed reaches the limit, and position the model back into a stable hovering position even if the user takes his hand off the controls, this is what makes quadcopters easy to fly.
The Electric Motor
On the outside of the motor, there are magnets attached to the inner wall, called the rotor (the spinning part). There are also permanent magnets on the inside of the motor, called the stator.
As the electricity runs through these magnets, it creates an electromagnetic field that attracts and repels the magnets in the stator. The constant change of polarity keeps the motor spinning.
Flight Control Board
After the transmitter is switched on, and the main power source – the LiPo battery – is plugged in, the receiver starts communicating with the transmitter. From this moment, the receiver will send every signal to the onboard computer.
The sensors on the computer will make sure the aircraft is stable, even under windy conditions, which makes controlling the aircraft easier – even for beginners.
As the transmitter sends signals to the aircraft, the onboard computer sends signals to the electric speed controllers. The controllers can control the amount of voltage received by the motors, in order to control the speed of each propeller. This system allows the quadcopter to maneuver.
Electronic Speed Controller
The electronic speed controller is connected to the lipo battery and controls the rotational speed of the motor by adjusting electric current (amp) to ensure the motors are running smoothly and efficiently.
The controller has a built-in governor, which keep the motor’s RPM (rotation per minute) at a steady level in every flight conditions.
The LiPo battery is rechargeable and lightweight, capable of delivering high discharge rates to provide enough power to the brushless electric motors.
The propeller converts the motion into lifting power. Because of the special shape of the blades, the air pressure is uneven on two sides while they are in motion, what creates lifting power. The principle can be easily modeled by Newton’s third motion law and Bernoulli’s principle.
The Receiver (RX)
Receivers are electric devices with built-in antennas that intercept the radio signals from the transmitters and convert them into alternating current pulses. The receiver then produces information and sends it to the flight controller board.
The Transmitter (TX)
The transmitter enables the user to control the aircraft from a distance, using different Ghz spread spectrum radio signals.